# The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Integration is introduced as the reversal of differentiation i.e. in solving a differential equation, $\dfrac{\textnormal{d}y}{\textnormal{d}x}=\textnormal{g}(x)$. The link between integration and area is often passed over and is the subject of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. [The following discussion can be adapted for a decreasing function or, piece-wise, a function which successively increases or decreases.]

Consider and area function, $A(x)$, defined by the area under $\textnormal{f}(x)$ between $a$ and and a general point, $x$. If a small increment, $\delta x$, is applied to $x$ giving a small element, $\delta A$ of area. Now, $\textnormal{f}(x)\delta x \leqslant \delta A \leqslant \textnormal{f}(x+\delta x)\delta x$

dividing though by $\delta x$, gives, $\textnormal{f}(x) \leqslant \dfrac{\delta A}{\delta x} \leqslant \textnormal{f}(x+\delta x),$

a limit sandwich where, as $\delta x \rightarrow 0$, $\dfrac{\textnormal{d}A}{\textnormal{d}x}=\textnormal{f}(x)$

The curve function, $\textnormal{f}(x)$ is the derivative of the area function; hence the area function is the anti-derivative of the curve function and, $\displaystyle\int \textnormal{f}(x) \textnormal{d}x=A(x).$

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